What is the Zk-SNARK protocol? Technology to increase privacy in blockchain
Zk-SNARK protocol is one of the most interesting technologies in the field of authentication and privacy in which no information is disclosed or transmitted. This protocol allows the parties to a transaction to prove ownership of their data without revealing information about their identity and assets. Since many companies do not like their transaction information to be leaked, the use of this protocol has become very popular. In this article, in addition to familiarizing with the Zk-SNARK technology, we intend to introduce the concept Zero Knowledge Proof Mechanism (ZKP) Let’s get to know each other.
What is meant by Zero Knowledge Proof (ZKP)?
In order to get familiar with the concept of Zk-SNARK protocol, it is better to first discuss the concept of proof with zero knowledge. This concept first in 1980s It was presented theoretically and it represents a method of credit verification in which there is no need to publish information. In this method, a party to a transaction (verifier) can convince the verifier of its validity without revealing any information beyond the validity of the transaction itself. For example, by considering Hash is a random number, the prover can convince the verifier that there really is a number with this hash value. (without showing what that number actually is)
Imagine you are going to enter a site. You must first enter your password or actually provide it to the site owners for them to verify its validity. Now, if there is a way to assure the site owner that you have the correct password without sending the password, you have taken an important step in protecting your privacy. In this situation, your password or transaction information is not stored anywhere and the possibility of hacking and fraud is minimized. The calculation details of this method are very complicated.
Zk-SNARK protocol definition
Zk-SNARK protocol is one of the protocols based on proof of zero knowledge, in which users are able to prove that they have valuable information without the need for interaction between the prover and the verifier. Zk-SNARK, short for phrase Zero-Knowledge Succinct Non-Interactive Argument of Knowledge Or proof of non-interactive zero knowledge. In most crypto projects, transactions are rejected by the network itself. For example, the network checks whether the transaction provider has the required amount of assets or not; It also checks the correct private key to prove that the asset belongs to him.
Zk-SNARK protocol information including sender, receiver, transaction amount and address IP hides in a transaction. This protocol takes refuge in mathematical equations for this concealment. In fact, all the information in the transaction is converted into mathematical calculations for confirmation. With this, there is no need to disclose information to confirm information; Rather, transactions are validated here by solving equations.
Advantages of Zk-SNARK technology
In this section, we are going to discuss the special advantages of the Zk-SNARK protocol. Among the most important advantages of this protocol, Privacy protection is above it. This protocol preserves very important information and there is no need for extensive communication between the two sides of the transaction. Perhaps it can be said, the only thing needed in this protocol for validation is a request from the prover to the verifier. It is interesting to know that the verification of information in this protocol, only a few Millisecond It lasts and it’s amazing. Also, ZK-SNARKs, Throughput It is very good and if you use it, Lower gas rate will be. In the following, we will discuss the shortcomings of this project.
Disadvantages of ZK-SNARK technology
The ZK-SNARK protocol may seem like a perfect project, but it is not. The fact is that there are challenges in this field. For example, if a user gets access to the private key in the protocol, it is possible to token forgery Act. This forgery can be done by providing false documents to the verifiers or fake credentials. Efforts have been made to prevent this. ZCash digital currency is one of the cryptocurrencies that uses this protocol. This network is designed to minimize token forgery. Another shortcoming of this protocol is The probability of failure of quantum computing Is.
What cryptocurrencies use ZK-SNARK?
Currently, the popularity of the ZK-SNARK protocol has greatly increased. Two famous projects of digital currency, viz ZCASH And PIVX, use this protocol. ZCash specifically uses ZK-SNARK. This digital currency network, based on Proof of work algorithm it works. Meanwhile, PIVX benefits from proof of stake. Nevertheless, both of these projects are among the popular projects in the field of ZK-SNARK.
The ZCash project is one of the most secure projects among digital currencies. This network has ensured the security of transactions using the ZK-SNARK project. With the help of this protocol, ZCash is able to hide everything in a transaction and helps users remain anonymous as much as possible.
Correlation between ZK-SNARK and ZK-Rollup
It is interesting to note that proof of zero knowledge does not only apply to ZK-SNARK. In the world of digital currencies, this mechanism is also used in the popular ZK-Rollup technology. This method can be considered an effective solution to improve the scalability of Ethereum and increase the efficiency of processes. ZK-Rollup collects a number of transactions into a batch and keeps them off-chain for validation. With this, the mathematical calculations for validation are done outside the main chain, which helps improve scalability. After the calculations are done outside the main chain, it transfers them to the main layer of the blockchain in the form of a single transaction. There are different types of rollups in the blockchain world. For example, in the model Optimistic Rollup, assume that transactions are valid until proven false. zk-rollups, on the other hand, quickly verify transactions and generate cryptographic credentials. Proofs can be produced using ZK-SNARK or another type of zero-knowledge proof technology, ZK-STARK.
The difference between Zk-STARK and ZK-SNARK
So far we have learned about the importance and how ZK-SNARK works. In this section, we are going to talk about ZK-STARK and its difference with ZK-SNARK. ZK-STARK, like ZK-SNARK method, is based on zero knowledge proof; With the difference that in this method, there is no need for random settings. This feature makes Stark more secure than Snark. Additionally, using Stark increases verification speed and scalability. It is better to know that Starks, like Snarks, can transfer a part of the transaction outside the main chain to perform calculations and verify the validity, in order to increase the network’s throughput. With these conditions, because snarks have been used earlier than starks in the blockchain world; They are still more popular. Also, in the snarks Less complicated It can be seen in calculations.
The future of the Zk-SNARK protocol
Currently, the Zk-SNARK protocol is more focused on the privatization of financial transactions in digital currencies. It is good to know that this is not the only use of this valuable protocol. In the future, it is likely that this protocol will be used to protect the information and privacy of people who chat online Online activities used This can be considered as a promise to use new methods to protect privacy in the world of decentralized applications.
What is the Zk-SNARK protocol? The technology of increasing privacy in blockchain appeared first on Wallex blog. appeared.